Useful Tips

Likebes from amateur estimata


Experienced hunters know that shooting a rifle is necessary to hit a target. Rifles must be shot every time they are used, as sudden movements or jolts during transport or in the warehouse can damage the adjusted scope. A rifle that does not shoot accurately can be dangerous, both for the shooter himself and for those around him. This article describes how to adjust the rifle scope, ensure proper storage, and allow you to hope for a good day at the shooting range or on the field.

Open sight

Using an open sight, the shooter achieves the location on one line, called the sighting, of three objects: target, front sight and rear sight. Since, according to the laws of optics, it is impossible to simultaneously hold three objects in focus at the same time, it accommodates the eye on a point located on the front-to-rear segment and dividing this segment in a ratio of approximately 2: 1. By this he achieves approximately equal clarity of observation of both the front sight and the rear sight. The target is thus vague.

Schematically open sight is a plate with a width of 15-20 mm, so

called the pillar, on the upper face of which there is a small depression, called the notch of the sight. The pillar is set on top of the trunk, about the middle of its length, 35-40 cm from the shooter's eye. Aiming consists in setting and holding the front sight in a certain position in relation to the notch of the sight, then bring the aiming line to the aiming point. Aiming, in which the gaps on the right and left side of the front sight are the same, and the upper face of the front sight is at the same height with the upper face of the rear sight, is correct.

To correctly install the front sight in the slots of the sight, you must first clearly see the rear sight. The normal eye can clearly see objects further than 25 cm. It is impossible to put the whole pillar closer, since both the slot and its upper face will be visible in this case, blurry and foggy. But, besides the rear sight, you also need to clearly see the front sight located at the end of the trunk, that is, even further. It turned out that it is easier for the eye to alternately accommodate on the rear sight and front sight if the rear sight is not located at the near limit of eye accommodation, i.e. not 25 cm, but slightly further 35-40 cm away. But, moving the scope away from the eye, we thereby reducing the length of the sighting line, and therefore, reducing the accuracy of aiming.

With an open sight, a little more than half the distance from the shooter's eye to the front sight is usually used as an aim line, while with a ring sight this distance is used almost completely. In other words, if we aim with the same accuracy with an open and a ring sight, then with an open sight, errors in aiming, and hence the dispersion of holes, will be almost two times greater than when aiming with a ring sight.

This is the first drawback of an open sight. To make a well-aimed shot, the shooter must clearly see not only the rear sight and front sight, but also the target. The whole is located 35-40 cm from the eye, the front sight is 80-90 cm, and the target can be removed tens and hundreds of meters. For accurate aiming, it is necessary to do well, and at the same time to see these three objects - the rear sight, the front sight and the target, removed at completely different distances.

The structure of the eye, as you know, is such that he can simultaneously clearly see only objects that are at the same distance from him. Thus, the requirements for the eye when aiming with an open sight are unnatural and impossible.

Meanwhile, it is known that shooters and hunters use an open scope and, moreover, quite successfully. Many of them claim that they aim equally or, in any case, quite well at the same time and see the whole, and the front sight, and the target. This apparent contradiction is explained simply: the visual perception of some picture is stored in the human mind for about one tenth of a second. It is known, for example, that any film consists of separate pictures, or frames. Frames are replaced in front of the viewer with such speed that the visual perception of one picture, not having time to disappear, is replaced by the perception of the next picture. The viewer does not notice the alternation of frames. Trained on an open sight, the shooter acquires the ability (style) of so quick accommodation of the eye on the sight, front sight and target, that in his mind he remains a picture of the simultaneous distinct vision of three objects with different distances.

The ability to very fast accommodation is not developed immediately and is not easy and requires a long and hard training.

The complete discrepancy between the open sight and the physiological characteristics of the human eye is the second and most significant drawback of the open sight.

Finally, the entire lower half of the field of view when using an open sight can be closed entirely, which makes it difficult to aim at a rapidly departing beast. Even with weak recoil, the pillar, rising with the barrel up, immediately closes the entire field of view, and above all, the target located directly above it, as a result, the possibility of observing the target at the time of the shot is often ruled out, which is sometimes of great importance.

This is the third drawback of the open sight. It should be added that in low light it is impossible to use the open scope for any precise aiming.

Of the positive qualities of an open sight, one can note its strength, simplicity of the device, and the ensuing reliability and reliability in operation. In addition, the open sight is mounted low above the barrel and does not require a change in the application.

There are many open sights systems. Consider only the most common of them.

The simplest type of open sight

Such a sight does not allow changes in its height, and therefore, changes in the battle of weapons in height with the help of a sight. When shooting at long distances, you have to make the aiming point up. At the same time, small targets are completely covered by the front sight and aiming at them becomes very difficult. Sights with unchanged rear sight are found, for example, on pistols and revolvers, i.e., on weapons designed for shooting at short distances.

Frame sight

the sight. For shooting, the frame rises and is mounted vertically. A collar is put on the frame, which can move up and down on it. A cut is cut on the upper side of the clamp. Thus, the clamp is movable as a whole. On the side of the frame facing the arrow, a distance scale is applied to the right and left. The clamp with the help of a spring latch can be fixed on the desired scale division.
The scope sight is not very durable. In addition, the sides of the frame and clamp partially overlap the field of view.

Step open scope

certain firing distances, from a frame pivotally connected to the base, from a leaf spring, squeezing the frame down, and a clamp with a latch moving along the frame. Entirely serves either a collar, or a special tide, available at the free end of the frame. For firing at a given distance, the clamp is set to the desired division of the scale and lowered to the appropriate distance base step.

Step-frame sights.

Stepped frame sight
Mosin system rifles model 1891
There are also combined step-frame sights. This sight is similar in design to the frame and differs from the frame by the presence on its base of a number of steps on which a cable tie can be mounted that slides along the frame. The slot of the sight (diopter) is made on the frame. When installing the clamp on different steps, the slot of the sight has a different height. In this sight, the installation for firing at short ranges is carried out by the interaction of 3 parts (steps of the base, lowered to the horizontal position of the frame and clamp), and for firing at long ranges by the interaction of only 2 parts (vertical frame and clamp). This makes it very difficult to use the sights, so they are not currently used. Step-frame sights were widely used in store rifles. An example of a stepped-frame sight is the sight of the Russian three-line Mosin rifle arr. 1891 year.

Rack sights

Rack sights are also similar in design to frame sights. The difference between them is only that instead of the frame there is a rack that performs the same functions. An example of a rack sight can serve as a sight machine gun "Maxim" arr. 1910 year.

Hinged scope

(diopters) for different firing ranges. For shooting, one of the racks is installed perpendicular to the axis of the barrel. Folding sights are a type of rack mount sights. One of the options for this sight is a sight with a rotating whole, used in PPSh and PPS submachine guns. It consists of a rotating pillar and a permanent front sight. Its hinged pillar has two pillars designed for firing at ranges of 100 and 200 m. In accordance with this, the numbers 10 and 20 are set on the pillar. The whole rotates on an axis fixed to the base of the pillar and is held in its attached position by a spring. Due to the limited range of ranges and inconvenience of operation, folding sights are currently preserved only in hunting and sports weapons.

Sector sight

Sector sight Mosin store rifle arr. 1891/30 gg .: 1. The base (block) of the sight. 2. Namushnik. 3. A clamp of an aim level. 4. Latch clamps. 5. The axis of the aiming plate. 6. Reticle spring

The installation of this sight is achieved by the interaction of three parts as well (base, aiming bar and scope clamp). The sector sight consists of: a fixed base (sight pads), an aiming bar with divisions, a sight (pillar) moving in height with a spring-loaded clamp, and a leaf spring designed to hold the aiming bar in attached positions. Entirely made at the same time with the aiming bar. In sector sights there is a slight change in the length of the sighting line (the straight line connecting the front and the sight is called the sighting line). The longer it is, the more accurate the sights. So, in 7.62 mm Kalashnikov AK / AKM assault rifles, the length of the sighting line is 378 mm.

Sector sight Kalashnikov assault rifle and method of installation:
1. A block of a sight. 2. Sector. 3. Aim bar.

The aiming strip of Kalashnikov machine guns, RPD and SVD rifles has a movable rear sight. Such a device of the aiming strip is designed to introduce corrections for crosswind and lateral movement of the target. The constant step of cutting the aiming range scale, which is achieved by selecting the curvature of the side racks of the base, and the presence of only one slot make the sector sight accurate and convenient to operate.

The range scale is marked on the aiming plate: for AKM / AK-74 assault rifles and RPK / RPK-74 light machine guns with divisions from 1 to 10, for the SVD rifle - from 1 to 12, for the PC / PKM machine gun - from 1 to 15. For the opening of immediate firing during intense periods of battle in the Kalashnikov designs of small arms on the aiming range of the scope provides for the permanent installation of "P" (corresponding to the scope of "3"), which will defeat targets at all ranges of a direct shot at the chest target: for Kalashnikov AK / AKM (50 cm high) - 350 m, for manual Kalashnikov RPK machine guns - 365 m, and a running figure - 525 m.

Fire training

The effect of the use of weapons on the shooting. Breath. Aiming with open and optical sights.

An appendix is ​​a way to emphasize a rifle’s butt in the aiming shoulder and the corresponding position of the sniper’s arms and head. The application is essential for accuracy.

As you know, when firing, the recoil of the weapon occurs, which affects the stability of the weapon during firing, and therefore negatively affects the accuracy of shooting.
When fired, the rifle, moving backward, pushes the sniper in the shoulder, which counteracts this push. Thus, two forces are obtained, acting in opposite directions. Due to the bend of the rifle’s butt, these two forces act in more than one horizontal plane and tend to rotate the rifle with the barrel up. The deflection of the rifle will be the greater, the greater the shoulder of a pair of forces. Consequently, resting the butt in the shoulder with a lower angle, we will have a larger shoulder of a couple of forces than with the upper angle of the butt, and a greater deviation of the rifle barrel.

Hence the rule which the sniper should always adhere to: in order to obtain uniform departure angles and maintain accuracy of fire, the butt of the rifle should rest against the shoulder in the same way, without changing its position in the shoulder.

The lack of uniformity in the application leads to a spread of bullets in height. If you press the butt into the shoulder with the lower (sharp) corner of the butt (B), the bullets will go up, and when they rest against the upper (blunt) corner, they will go down (B).

The scatter of bullets in height also occurs if the sniper puts the rifle on the stop not at the same place as the barrel linings or changes the position of the left hand supporting the rifle.
To avoid bullet scatter, you need to rest the butt of the rifle in the middle of the butt plate on the shoulder, the barrel linings should always lie in the same place on the palm of your left hand.
Fingers of the right hand freely, without tension, grasp the handle of the stock, pass the index finger into the trigger guard so that it touches the bracket with the outside. It is necessary to ensure that the fingers do not squeeze the rifle strongly, which is usually neglected by beginner arrows.

The stronger you squeeze the rifle, the more it trembles in your hands, which significantly reduces the accuracy of fire. The main thing in both manufacturing and application is no voltage.


It should be noted right away: with an open sight, even thoroughly modified behind the plant, the most typical working distance (even for high-precision magnum pneumatic pneumatic) is about 10 - 45 m. Of course, this statement does not mean that it is impossible to hit targets with an open sight, including hunting, at greater distances. Not. With a favorable set of circumstances, it is quite possible: this is proved by the practice of many airganers who saw optical sights only in shops and on rifles of their hobby friends.
However, this is still not about happy coincidences, but about guaranteed opportunities.

Every vegetable, whatever one may say, has its own season. Optics allows you to increase the distance of shooting from pneumatics up to 100 and even more meters: it is pleasant and honorable to fill up a car at such a distance, especially in the wind or at dusk. But shooting with an open sight at a distance three times smaller has its own charm

In the summer, almost every morning I very successfully shot summer thrushes from the Gamo Shadow, from time to time, sitting on a tall old spruce, or rather, almost exclusively on its crown, located at a distance of 20-25 meters from the window of my ambush - and I must say, that slowly falling after a successful shot, like a dry autumn leaf, recounting coniferous paws in the fall and gleaming in the low morning sun with a speckled chest plumage, a well-fed mountain ash is one of the most exciting and spectacular spectacles that I have ever seen . But how much could I see at 60-80 meters, would I use optics on my hunt? Not only would half the pleasure of a successful shot be lost here, but, I’m afraid, I would not be able to find my trophies after its end.

So, in order to confidently hit targets at a selected distance, an open sight, like an optical sight, must be shot at a selected distance. That is, to adjust the position of the aiming bar and the rear sight vertically and horizontally so that after aiming the bullet hits exactly the point at which we, and not our rifle, are desirable.
Hundreds of articles and instructions have been written on how to correctly shoot an open sight and how to use it in the future, many factories producing pneumatics, including Izhmeh, also devote several lines to this issue in the “manuals” attached to the products. I will try to briefly outline the main steps of this process here.

Before taking on the actual sighting, we take the rifle in our hands and carefully examine the sights. First - the front sight. It should stand on the barrel exactly, that is, not to fall either to the right or to the left, if you look at it from the muzzle end. The best reference here is the upper (horizontal) and frontal (vertical) planes of the breech or the end of the forend. Smooth? Fine. Now, holding the weapon on outstretched arms, we look at the trunk from above: the longitudinal optical axis of the front sight should be strictly parallel to the trunk line. Next - inspect the scope. It should also be fixed in its place exactly, without distortions on both planes, and, of course, not hang on the plane of attachment, for which its screws should be well tightened. If everything is in order, we can start shooting.

Fundamentally, there is nothing complicated in it. Отмечу только, что осуществлять ее нужно с упора, лучше всего полумягкого, а в идеале, как принято считать, с мешка БР. А также напомню еще раз небезызвестный факт: если у вас ППП, в пристрелочные тиски ее зажимать НЕЛЬЗЯ!

1. Вывернув на максимум по высоте микрометр вертикальных поправок, несколько раз нажимаем пальцем на прицельную планку, тем самым определяя диапазон ее хода по вертикали. In some sights, especially with a spring plate as a bar, it can also be defined purely visually.
2. We twist the micrometer in the opposite direction - about half its stroke, thereby setting the bar in the middle position of the stroke. Especially carefully this point should not be looked for - you still have to adjust it later.
3. We debug the position of the rear sight using a horizontal correction micrometer: set it so that the cutout through which we see the front sight is in the middle relative to the lateral boundaries of the fixed base of the aiming plate.
4. We put a bullet in the barrel, put the rifle on the stop and aim at the target’s bullseye as shown in the figure.

The correct position of the front sight in the rear sight when shooting (flat front sight): the top edge of the front sight is in line with its upper border.

The first method of aiming is called the “bullseye”, the second - “the bullseye”.

The question of exactly how to shoot - at him or under him - IMHO, is still open. Because, again IMHO, it remains a matter of personal preference. Personally, I always shoot and, accordingly, then shoot the bull's-eye: it’s more convenient for me. But then everyone decides for himself.

5. We make a series of shots (say, 5-6), trying not to forget about the classic shooting techniques: the correct grip, the correct position of the finger on the trigger and so on (see link No. 1). And also about the "tricky" two-way recoil, if we shoot from a PP rifle, and the corresponding proper retention of it at the time of the shot.
6. We approach the target, and see where the bullets hit.

Next - all according to the traditional instructions: you need to adjust the "vertical" and "horizontal".

If the bullet holes are to the right of the target’s bullseye, we move the rear sight with a slot using the horizontal correction micrometer to the left. If they are to the left - on the contrary. And the same thing with the vertical hit point: if the holes are above the bullseye - lower the aiming strip with a micrometer of vertical corrections, if lower - raise it.

The exact number of clicks this needs to be done in 1 time depends, of course, on the shooting distance and the distance the bullet deviates from the aiming point, as well as on the click price of this particular sight. But in any case - not by much. If the distance is, say, 20 meters and after the first series of shots the bullets went up 2 cm. - you need to lower the bar by 2-3 clicks, and make a new series of shots. We also do the horizontal adjustment with a micrometer in case of a 2 cm deflection of the bullet to the side.

And so on until the bullets with an even front sight (see. Fig. Above) do not begin to lie exactly in the bull's-eye.

In the process of shooting, in no case do not need to rush and get nervous. After 2-3 episodes of shooting with adjustment, it is better to take a short break: put off the rifle, give your hands and, in particular, eyes a rest: it’s nice to even rinse your face under cold water and keep your eyes closed. And after five to seven minutes, set to work again.

After shooting the rifle at your target distance, try to make sure that in the future the micrometers of your open sight do not stumble, do not rotate from accidental contact or when transporting the rifle in a case. Unfortunately, an open sight is not an optics - manufacturers do not provide any protection against this phenomenon, and the entire responsibility lies entirely with the owner.

Exactly in this sense, open sights with digital limbs on micrometers are especially good: if they are available, at least you can remember or write down the correction parameters and save them so that you don’t shoot the rifle again every time after you accidentally knock down the “setting” , unsuccessfully grabbing a rifle by the breech or uncovering it after transportation. Most mechanical sights, due to the design features, most often have a tendency to stray vertical micrometer - so you should try to somehow fix it in the position found: for example, cover the thread with blue before sighting (by no means red!), The so-called " detachable "elbow.


The rest of the story is a story about a method of shooting a rifle with an open sight, which I personally like. Let me remind you that this is just a subjective private experience, moreover, the experience of an amateur, not a professional athlete: I hope that in view of this circumstance my strange amateurish tests with the help of ballpoint pen and pencil rods will forgive me. And, perhaps, someone will be curious to check in practice the algorithm I adopted for myself. I don’t know what the results will be in this case - I can only say one thing: mine at my working distances are quite happy with me.

First, about one not uninteresting moment related to traditional paper targets for shooting. Using them, I have often noticed one strange thing: a really good bunch, such that all the bullets fired in one go fly at me one to one, I am not able to collect even at 10 meters.
Why? But the devil knows him.
My main rifle is high-quality and accurate. The sight - modified for yourself - beloved and very convenient. I’m doing everything, like I’m doing everything right: I don’t “aim”, I don’t tilt the rifle on my side, I use a monotonous grip, I don’t tightly grab the neck and do not press the butt with all my strength, I gently press the hook with the first and second phalanx folds: And the bullets in a circle with a diameter of 25 mm. most often lie at best like this:

Where is the notorious accuracy of the German stem? Where are the notorious "bullet in a bullet on a dozen"? In frustration from my curvature, I put an ordinary pencil at the same distance, take aim in the middle - and from the first shot I get this:

Perched up, I remove the chips, and I no longer put a pencil, but, for example, a rod from a ballpoint pen. I click on the SK - and I get it like this. Moreover, again - with 1 shot ..

Okay. The pencil and the core are thin: their "working areas" are much narrower than the circles of 25 mm. But they are tall - much higher than him. Maybe I shot the rifle well horizontally, so I get where I want - and I simply can’t track the bullet’s deflection due to the decent length of my “target” in height?
I take the "shot" before this circle, I peer into it. I don’t understand anything about it. Well, except for one thing: the feeling that a drunk Chekist made this bunch, shooting from a faulty Nagan at a bug crawling in zigzags on the prison wall.
Then I take the killed felt-tip pen of about the same diameter as a pencil and hang it horizontally on a piece of scotch tape from the bullet trap. I'm shooting. First to the left tip, then to the right. The result in the photo, the paper under the "target" did not change.

This moment has always remained a mystery to me, which I have not yet resolved for myself. Why, shooting from the same rifle at a mug drawn on paper, I’m not always able to collect a heap of at least 1.5 cm per 10 m from 5-6 bullets - but at the same time, all other things being equal, it’s extremely rare I’m missing a pencil with a diameter of less than 8 mm that is barely noticeable in room light at 10 meters, a sleeve from a PM, a button from a computer keyboard, a cap, or even a rod from a ballpoint pen ?!

But the most interesting thing is that dialogues on this subject with other people shooting both with optics and with an open sights revealed a complete lack of exclusivity of this phenomenon. I thought something similar only with me - but it turned out that many people knew similar cases.

I don’t know what is the reason. Perhaps, as always, in the head. That is, in psychology. It must be that when the target in front of you is in the form of a narrow line, the internal discipline is higher: you are especially responsible (and unbeknownst to yourself) approach the whole process, which includes application, aiming and descent.

But be that as it may. Comparing my conflicting results, I asked myself the question: why would I, since I can’t make the correct sighting of the sight on a classic target, do not use it for this. uh sorry, felt-tip pens and pencils? I do not strive to prove to professionals my ability to make friends with the “classics” in sports shooting ranges.

So I use it. Very, as experience shows, successfully:
The conclusion that I made on the basis of all of the above is as follows. For shooters who, like me, have difficulty shooting and shooting at a target with a round "apple", a different type of target may appear more suitable - in the form of a cross:

But here there is one (perhaps also by no means a purely individual) moment. Personally, I feel much more comfortable both psychologically and purely visually to shoot the rifle first at the target, which represents only 1 line: for example, a vertical one. And then, having dealt with her, shoot on the second. And only then already make a final conclusion by shooting a rifle at a target that includes both components of the cross.

Here is my targeting algorithm. Perhaps this looks like amateurism - I understand and do not argue. But it’s easier and more convenient for me, but I’ll remind you again, I’m sharing my personal experience.

1. A rough sighting on a target with a round bullseye.
2. More "thin" sighting in a vertical line.
3. A sighting of the same nature in a horizontal line.
4. The final sighting on the target cross.


It is good to shoot from an open sight in bright daylight - at a fixed black-and-white target, or at a bio-target on a sunny day, when its silhouette is clearly outlined against the background of an even glow of a uniformly blue sky. However, in light twilight or when shooting against the backdrop of the variegation of the summer “green”, the whole and front sight of the rifle become barely distinguishable, blur, lost in the half-haze or in the intricacies of moving, mottled with variable shadows and sunspots branches. Probably, for shooters with eagle eyesight this is not a hindrance. But what about the rest?

Here, special inserts made of polymeric materials will help out, having the property to concentrate the light and, as it were, to shine, clearly marking the borders of the slot of the rear sight and the tip of the front sight. They are called so - light concentrators, and also - optical fibers or fiber inserts. Initially, they were invented for hunting firearms: as interchangeable flies mounted on the trunks of trunks, and allowing hunting at dusk, when the arrow cannot distinguish the usual fly from the eyes.

Over time, this innovation also appeared on airgun sights, now the sights of such popular mass air rifles as Gamo, Hatsan, Norika, part of Dian modifications, and part of Vairaukh company models are now equipped with light guide inserts. Well, native Izhmeh, of course, here, as always, "behind the entire planet", and this useful improvement is proudly ignored. Religion probably does not allow - more precisely, the long-standing traditions of sports weapons classics. Yes, that could be understood. If it weren’t for the crookedly welded dovetails and obliquely cut trunks on the Murka, which, to put it mildly, are difficult to reconcile with that “religiosity”.

But as they say, we were distracted.

For people with poor eyesight, fiber optic inserts are a real find. A simple example: I wear -7.5 glasses, which, despite the "flattened" modern glasses, give optical parallax along the edges of the visual field, which is especially noticeable during shooting. Part of the spring and all summer I shot from the “Gamo Shadow”, equipped with my own “staffer” with thin yellow fiber inserts and a home-made fly on modera, on which a light concentrator from the Remington set was installed.

Everything was perfect - in the dawn twilight and in the murky August haze, thrushes fell from the trees, bottles barely visible in the crossroads of sun glare scattered into dust on a landfill, and at home, 15 meters away, bulbs from flashlights glued with plasticine to the barn wall. Of course, there were misses, like any shooter - but not by the fault of my weak vision, but because of the usual mistakes in aiming and descent.

But in September, when I bought Diana-34 with the most ordinary open scope - completely without fiber inserts and a front sight in the form of a pointed rod in a protective steel ring - continuous failures began. I finished the factory sight slightly backlash at 2 points, and then completely changed it to Gamowski, which I had akin to over the summer - but it did not help much. The results returned to normal only when I redid the full-time front sight by “sticking” the familiar Remington light concentrator into it.

If you have successfully grown hands, it is not difficult to equip sighting rifles with these useful devices. Sets of concentrators "Truglo", "Remington" and others like them are sold in hunting stores. These are, as a rule, kits that include a base for mounting on the trunk lath and several interchangeable light guide inserts in the form of rods (usually up to 3 pcs.) With a diameter of 2-4 mm. They can be of different colors (the most common - yellow, orange and red), and have a different shape of the tip facing the arrow. For example, this is a Remington set

includes a plastic base with two flat magnets for fixing on the bar of the gun, and 3 interchangeable 2 mm. optical fiber: 1 - with a triangular tip with sides about 4 mm high., and 2 - with round ones, with a diameter of 2.5 and 3 mm.

This is how I once strengthened this device on the sound moderator Gamo Shadow:

And so - in the steel tube of Diana-34:

And here is the Diane pillar, co-authored with a member of the Steel Shadow forum: for him, trimmed inserts from the same set were used as concentrators.

Here is another “stray” with a slightly different design with an orange light guide, I plan to equip it with a new front sight of the IZH-46M pistol.

All this is for sale, and all this can be bought and modified in accordance with the necessary requirements. One “but”: for some reason, the price for this happiness is being completely frenzied. For example, the fly, which is shown in the last photo, is sold in the Chain Mail for an amount of as much as 500-odd rubles! Obviously, the problem, as always, is in the domestic manufacturer, which for some reason we must support, and which, apart from the wretched "Cat's Eye" - a dark, blind and ineffective piece, I will not say anything in a roughly processed metal holder - there is nothing like offering the consumer condition.

There is, however, a more budgetary option than the expensive import “rotglo”. Instead of special light guide inserts, you can use a thing completely unexpected by sight and hearing as markers for the front sight and slots of the rear sight: a cutting line for a garden trimmer (knife-free mower). This fishing line is available in various diameters (from about 1.5 to 3.5 mm.) And several colors: red, white, orange, green and yellow.

Only yellow is suitable for our purposes - for some reason, it is it that has the ability to intensively “glow” (it should be noted, however, that among special concentrators, according to my observations, yellow are the most effective). There is a reel or skein of such fishing line in a dozen and a half meters of 200-300 rubles, and such "hubs" can be made from it as much as you like - and most importantly, the workpiece is not scary to screw up when working.

Also, according to some participants, colored fishing line can be used as light guide threads.

The light guide inserts from the sets are always straight, and at the same time they are much less plastic than fishing line and fishing line for trimmers. And when installing them in the rear, so that they do not overlap the view and make it possible to aim (the arrow, as we understand, only their ends inserted into the holes drilled in the rear) should be visible, they will have to be directed downward at a certain angle, and, accordingly, to bend.

I use ordinary boiling water for this: this method eliminates overheating and unpredictable lateral deformation of a very expensive product. Usually, exposure for 1-1.5 minutes in a container with boiling water is enough to slightly soften the insert and become plastic. After it is bent, while continuing to hold it in your fingers, you need to cool it under a stream of cold water.

And further. When installing the insert, you will likely have to shorten it. Here it is necessary to consider the following: in no case can they be cut, but can only be cut with a knife. Otherwise, the cut will turn opaque, and no matter how you polish it later, you won’t be able to achieve the previous bright “glow”. You should not use scissors either, otherwise the insert is deformed at the point of cut, it will hesitate, and its cross section at the end will be close to oval, and in addition, the cut surface will be rough. It goes without saying that the knife used for this operation should be very sharp, it is best to use the so-called breadboard model with a thin blade.

A brief description of the open sights of some models of popular airguns.

Unfortunately, most manufacturers of serial air rifles and pistols designed for "amateur recreational shooting" do not pay due attention to the careful development of the design of standard sighting devices. Такое ощущение, что открытый прицел для них - главный "козел отпущения", на котором в первую голову можно сэкономить в процессе удешевления производства.

Obviously, the manufacturer argues as follows: why strive for high quality, if all the same, most amateur shooters strive to first install optics on their weapons, and dismiss the "native" open sight? And maybe this is so: why should an amateur with his "amateur shooting" get exactly on target? One of the rare exceptions is, for example, the manufacturer of the Vairaukh rifle: the mechanical sights it supplies to the HW-57, 77, 80, 85, etc. models are of high quality, and are only slightly inferior to the sights of high-precision sports weapons, it does not require completion "on the knee".


Shooting breath

Riflemen shoot an exhale, using a breathing pause (1-2 seconds apart) between inhalation and exhalation. Why do riflemen do just that and not otherwise? To better understand this, accept the manufacture lying with an emphasis. Aim the rifle at the target. Inhale. You will feel that when you inhale, the chest has increased in volume and has risen. Together with her, the butt of the weapon also rose, respectively, the front sight dropped. When you exhale, the chest is reduced in volume and the fly rises. This happens both when shooting from the stop, and when shooting from the belt. Anyone who shoots a pistol can shoot both on inhalation and on a half-exhale, but a shooter lying down from a rifle can fully shoot only on exhalation. At the time of a respiratory pause, on exhalation, carbon dioxide begins to accumulate in the body, which relaxes on the muscles. The ripple at the time of the respiratory break is the smallest. With exhaled air and a contracted chest, the shooter's body is relaxed in the most natural way.
Therefore, the shooter accepts manufacture on target in such a way that when you exhale, the front sight or other sights are brought under the target in a natural movement.

The shooter can and should train to hold the breath for 10-15 seconds, necessary for the shot. Before a shot, it is recommended to take a few deep, calm breaths and exhalations in order to enrich the body with oxygen.
At the time of the shot, the position of the front sight and other sights relative to the target must be stable, that is, monotonous. Such a stable position during sniper shooting can only be during a respiratory break.

For beginner shooters with improper breathing when shooting, a whole system of errors and misses is associated.
If the shooter does not hold his breath at all when firing contrary to the instructor’s instructions, one can see from the side how the barrel of his rifle “breathes” up and down. Separations in this case go vertically with a large size.
Breathing should be delayed immediately before the shot, 5-6 seconds before it, after the manufacture has been verified, the shooter “settled down”, previously aimed the weapon at the target and peered at it. The mistake of novice shooters is often that they hold their breath, not "peering" at the target, and sometimes not even "reclining". At the same time, at the very end of the shot, they run out of air, the beginner begins to choke and quickly puts pressure on the trigger. This leads to inevitable misses. For an instructor, a sign of an early cadet breath holding is that the rifle barrel, which during normal breathing also breathes up and down, and then stops for 5-6 seconds for a shot, does not breathe from the very beginning, but is observed before the shot small convulsive vibrations of the trunk.

Beginners have another extreme: they hold their breath too late, right before the shot, when the weapon has not yet “leveled” and has not “settled down” for the shot properly. Separations are observed vertically, most often up. The instructor notices such a mistake by the cadet, paying attention to the lack of stopping the barrel up and down before shooting, or to a very slight stop.

A widespread defect of novice shooters is a long breath holding when fired. When the shooter holds his breath for a very long time, dragging out the shot, then in the end he does not have enough air, oxygen starvation sets in, and the shooter tries to quickly pull the trigger and end the shot. The result is most often a miss. With all this, the shooter tenses unnoticed for himself, which causes increased fatigue.
For a normal shot, you need no more than 5-6, maximum 8 seconds. If the shooter cannot keep up with this time, then something is stopping him. First of all, the instructor must check the correctness of the workmanship: with the correct “reclined” and trained, proven workmanship, when everything that could be ill, was ill and does not hurt on any side, does not pull and does not press, the arrow should not interfere.

For beginners, most often the cause of prolonged breath holding is a small rifle resistance due to insufficient training. Therefore, the novice shooter is forced to take up preparation for the supine position with a rifle and, observing all the rules of aiming, withstand the front sight at the designated aiming point, without breaking away from the weapon and without taking the butt off the shoulder for an hour. All this happens without single clicks. The shooter trains only breath holding, performing it at the moment of combining the front sight with the desired aiming point. At the same time, the manufacture is refined and straightened. The shooter gets used to the increased loads and determines what he performed correctly in the manufacture and what was wrong and what clearly bothered him. It is very important for the instructor that the cadet understand the need for all this and do it all consciously. The conscious enthusiasm of the insider is more important in such cases than the commander’s amendments outside.

Some arrows, especially when standing, while holding their breath, involuntarily strain the muscles of the shoulder girdle, abdomen, abdominals, neck and even the face. When standing, you need to apply calm force, but you can’t strain. The tension of one muscle group reflexively entails the excessive and senseless tension of other muscles. This negates the coordination of movements when aiming and pulling the trigger. Excessive stress causes the shooter to become more tired.
When the shooter is tense, he usually takes a quick deep breath before firing and a quick exhale after firing. And even the facial expression of such an arrow is tense and preoccupied.

To relieve stress, there is a very good practical technique: “sitting, while inhaling, raise your hands upside down with your palms inward, at the same time stretch your legs forward. Holding your breath for 2-3 seconds, stretch yourself strongly. Then, turning your palms forward and relaxing your muscles, exhale lower your hands down and pull your legs to the starting position "(F. I. Zhamkov. Initial training of the shooter-athlete).

Aiming with an open sight

Good vision is a prerequisite for proper aiming and marksmanship.
In order to aim the rifle at the target, you need to give it a position where the eye sees the middle of the slot of the sight (at the level of the mane of the aiming bar), the top of the front sight and the aiming point on the same line. This is the aim. The task, at first glance, is very simple, but it is not so easy to accomplish.

The novice shooter often does not take into account the limited capabilities of our vision and makes gross errors in aiming. He wants to see the slot of the sight, the front sight and the target equally clearly. Since his task is to hit the target, he focuses his attention on it, sees it clearly, distinctly and imperceptibly for himself, takes an uneven fly, as a result - an inevitable miss.

First basic rule: when aiming with an open sight, you should close your left eye without tension. and the right clearly and clearly see the slot of the sight and the front sight, not paying attention to the fact that the target will be visible a little foggy. Therefore, the main thing is the slot and the front sight, and the aiming point is secondary.

The front sight should be flat, i.e. be in the middle of the slot of the sight and flush with its edges. If the fly is large, i.e. above the notch of the sight, the bullets will go up if the front sight is small, i.e. below the slot of the sight, the bullets will go down. The most minor deviations of the front sight in the slot of the sight lead to a significant deviation of the bullet from the aiming point.

Therefore, if you need to make an amendment, you should do this by appropriate installation of the sight or removal of the aiming point. If the bullets lie to the right, you should aim the same to the left, but maintaining an even fly.

So the second rule: you can never "play" with a front sight - an even front sight is an unquestioned law of aiming.

Aiming with a telescopic sight

When aiming a rifle at a target with an optical sight, all aiming is reduced to the fact that the point of the aiming mark must be brought to the aiming point. However, when shooting with an optical sight, the application is somewhat more complicated, since the sniper's eye must be in a strictly position relative to the optical sight.

Aiming, you must observe the following rules: Compatibility of the eye with the exit pupil of the sight. At the optical sight of a sniper rifle, the exit pupil is 68 mm away from the eyepiece.

Aiming errors:
a - the eye is 68 mm from the eyepiece - normal
b - the eye is located far from the eyepiece
in - the eye is located close to the eyepiece

No millimeter ruler is needed to determine this distance. If the eye is closer or further than the exit pupil, then in the eyepiece the shooter will see an annular shadow. Slightly bringing it closer or moving your head away from the sight, you need to find a position when this ring shadow disappears.

Keep an eye on the main optical axis of the sight. If the eye is shifted up, down or away from this axis, then crescent-shaped shadows will appear in the field of view. These shadows are located on the side of the eyepiece where the eye deviated from the optical axis. If there is such a shadow, the bullets will deviate in the direction opposite to the shadow (eye displacement).

Aiming errors:
a - the eye is on the continuation of the optical wasp and sight - normal
b - the eye is below and to the right of the optical axis of the sight
c - the eye is above and to the right of the optical axis of the sight

Therefore, in order to correctly aim from a sniper rifle, you need to point the point of the aiming mark at the aiming point and make sure that the field of view of the sight is completely clean, without any blackouts.

The habit of correctly placing the eye relative to the eyepiece is not immediately developed. But through systematic training in application and aiming, the necessary skill is acquired and aiming is carried out quickly and accurately.

Finally, third rule which must be observed when aiming with both an open and an optical sight. It consists in the fact that you can not dump the rifle. By stalling is meant the position of the rifle when the mane of the open sight and the side correction scale of the optical sight are not horizontal.


When the rifle is piled to the right, the bullets deviate to the right and down, and this deviation is the greater, the greater the distance and the stall angle.

When aiming, you must constantly monitor so that the scale of the lateral corrections of the optical sight is strictly horizontal. You need to aim with one eye, closing the other. Over time, after a little special training, you can shoot with your eyes open. This gives well-known advantages: the eyes do not tire, the observation improves. However, in this case, you need to aim only with one eye, the other eye should be aimed at the target.

In the process of aiming the eyes inevitably get tired. Therefore, in order to preserve visual acuity for the most critical moment, aiming is divided into two periods:
During first periodwhen the shooter has not yet begun to choose the descent, the correctness of manufacture is checked and with minor movements of the arms, elbows, legs and torso, the sniper eliminates various minor inconveniences. This preparatory period takes half of the entire aiming time, sometimes more. At this time, the shooter, without straining his eyesight, simply looks into the sights so that the eye is used to lighting and is approximately focused on the target.
Second period - this is the beginning of the processing of the shot as such, when the shooter held his breath, increased the pressure on the trigger and his eye began to clearly control the position of the front sight on the aiming point, that is, he began to "peer" at the target, and, in fact, went holding the front sight at the desired aiming point to the moment of the shot.

A sniper should know that prolonged observation through an optical device is very tiring for vision. But that is not all. With eye fatigue, its functional state and degree of perception changes. These changes are so significant that they even cause a shift in the midpoint of the hit. Even more, the middle point of contact shifts with a sharp transition of the eye from one device to another, with different magnifications. Look at the artillery compass having a tenfold magnification, and immediately after that try to aim from the PSO-1 sight. Observation in the compass or periscope is necessary - otherwise they can kill, and quite quickly. But with such an observation, the sniper often needs to “rest with his eyes”, having in his visual memory a captured “visual picture” of the responsible observed site with the most important landmarks. By the way, this is useful in the sense that the sniper can immediately see the changes that have occurred on the landscape. Therefore, if possible, let the partner watch, and the sniper once again does not spoil the vision.

In a combat situation, a sniper shoots with both eyes open, since the benefits of binocular vision are preserved. The binocularity of acute vision at distances up to 800 meters greatly facilitates the visual determination of the distance to the target. In addition, the second, aimless, eye allows you to capture changes on the battlefield.

Some individuals still cannot shoot with their left eyes open. They say that after a long and intense visual work, they begin to double in their eyes.
It really is. But you can’t squint your aimless eye anyway. It is better to cover it with a narrow vertical strip of white (or even better light green) paper. In this case, the shooter “disconnects” the non-targeted eye from the aiming process, but retains its binocularity, and the light-receiving balance of both eyes remains the same.

Aiming Tightening (Aiming)

If you aim for a long time, the arrow's eye gets tired very quickly. The physiological standard released for a shot from the moment of holding the breath is 8, maximum 10 seconds. After an excessively long (more than 10 seconds) "peering" at the target and controlling the front sight at the aiming point, the so-called "progressive eye fatigue" occurs.

Remember! In one minute of continuous aiming, visual acuity is halved. Two to three aimed shots weary your eyesight and reduce its sharpness much more than shooting for many hours with slow shots.
At the end of the "targeting" the eye gets so tired that it does not distinguish between the position of the front sight and other sighting devices. The shooter does not notice this, because his visual memory retains in his mind a "sighting picture" in all brightness for 2-3 seconds.

The reasons for the targeting are basically the same as with a long breath. And the consequences are the same. Targeting and long holding of breath are interconnected. The methods for eliminating this drawback are the same. If the instructor instructed the cadet to “lie down” for one hour without taking the butt off his shoulder, then the cadet’s task is to train, along with holding his breath and controlling his sight for sights according to the following scheme: control of the manufacture and elimination of its small negative aspects (at this moment, the vision rests) mobilization to the shot, breath holding (at this time, vision "peers" at the target and clearly controls the position of the front sight at the aiming point). After 8 seconds - inhale and rest your eyes. And so for an hour without idle clicks. It’s good if during this hour someone with a clock will be next to the cadet for counting the above 8 seconds. Gradually, time is reduced. The benefits of this training technique are hard to overestimate.

Zalivanie is a very ugly phenomenon, which sometimes manifests itself even among masters with many years of experience. To reduce it, the arrows learn the so-called shooting technique at a pace. What it is? Shooting at a pace - this is when the shooter is accustomed to make a shot in a certain period of time - neither more nor less. At this particular moment, the mobilization of the body should begin, the breath holding, the "eye" should "peer" and the finger on the trigger should work. And when all these components of the shot will be “accustomed” to fire in the same period of time, and not particularly long, they begin to depend on each other reflexively. When any of these functions is delayed or malfunctioning, other components “spur” it, and the shot occurs at the level of automatism. Practical snipers learn to fire a shot in 2 seconds, counting in their minds “twenty two - twenty two” - this will be 2 seconds. During this time, the sniper makes a shot at a subconscious level, not thinking how he breathes, peers, mobilizes and puts pressure on the trigger. При наработанном темпе выстрела все происходит само собой.

Моргание или боязнь выстрела

Если стрелок при прицеливании моргает обычным образом, как это делают все нормальные люди, на результатах стрельбы это не отражается. Но среди новичков распространена болезнь боязни выстрела, особенно из боевых магазинных винтовок с сильной отдачей. Instinctively, the cadets close their eyes before firing and, of course, stop aiming. Very often they pull at the same time for the descent, finally knocking down the tip of the weapon. They must be weaned from this, explaining that when the rifle jerked and pushed into the shoulder, the bullet was already in the target. And the rumble of a shot does not pose any danger to health at all. And by the way, it is very interesting to look with both eyes open at the rifle and towards the target at the time of the shot.
After which the instructor requires the “Morguns” to report where the fly looked at the moment of the shot (mark the shot). The most incorrigible of the "Morguns" instructor insidiously and imperceptibly lays training cartridges with sand instead of gunpowder. Why with sand? Gunpowder in the cartridge spills and rustles by ear, and sand, too. A stubbornly blinking cadet, awaiting a shot, with a cartridge not working, his own flaw becomes evident. After which the instructor forces the cadet to work only with training non-firing ammunition, from time to time putting ammunition among them. Thus, cadets are taught not to pay attention to the roar of a shot and recoil in general.

Head position when aiming

When shooting with an open sight, in which the line of sight is low enough, the shooter's head is positioned so as not to tire the eyes. As already mentioned, with low manufacturing, the eyes get tired faster. Why? Because the head is too tilted forward and the shooter looks at the sighting line from below, "turning" the eye unnaturally from the top up, which makes the eye muscles weary and all the other eye perception systems reflexively get tired. Therefore, at low, and with all other workpieces in all positions - both from the knee and standing - the head should be turned as far as possible with the face perpendicular to the line of sight. When shooting from a knee and standing it is very undesirable to stretch your head forward. In this case, the muscles of the face and neck are excessively tensed. Place your head so that it is convenient for you to see a slightly blurry rear sight, a clear, even front sight and a clear target. Place your head on your butt with your cheek and tilt it slightly to the right to make it easier to keep your eye on the sighting line, but tilting your head to the right excessively is not recommended. Quite often, newcomers, having taken the correct position, change the position of the head on the butt from shot to shot. The uniformity is broken, the spread increases.

When shooting while standing, some arrows throw their head too far back. From this, the eyes are forced to squint. Some turn their heads and squint, unnaturally straining their aiming eyes.

Incorrect positioning of the head tires your eyes, leads to a delayed shot and reduced accuracy. Some arrows change the position of the head at the time of aiming, which only worsens the conditions of the shot. The instructor's task is to simultaneously monitor the movement of the cadet’s finger on the descent and so that his head does not come off the butt and does not move during aiming.

F.I. Zhamkov in his instruction “Initial training of the shooter-athlete” cited a very good, tried-and-true method of fixing the head on the butt: “In order to maintain the uniformity of the position of the head without muscle tension when shooting from a rifle, you can do the following: tilt your head from the butt to the side and back, then, turning the chin to the butt, press on it from above and lower the head to the desired position, while relaxing the muscles of the neck. abdominal muscles. "

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