Most patients with diabetes get into a black hole of helplessness, having no idea how to reverse this condition. Of greatest concern is that more than half of patients with type 2 diabetes do NOT know that they have diabetes, and 90 percent of people in the stage of prediabetes do not know about their condition.
Type 1 diabetes, also called diabetes mellitus, is a chronic condition that is traditionally characterized by elevated blood glucose levels, often simply referred to as high blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes or “juvenile diabetes” is relatively rare. It develops in people under the age of 20 and treatment is unknown. The most worrisome is that the incidence of juvenile diabetes is steadily increasing, as is the incidence of type 2 diabetes: over the past few decades, among white children of non-Hispanic origin at the age of 10-14 years grew by 24 percent. But for black children, this problem is much larger: an increase of 200 percent! And, according to recent research, by 2020, these figures will double for all young people. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system kills the insulin-producing pancreatic cells. As a result, the hormone insulin is lost. Type 1 diabetics need extra insulin for the rest of their lives, because its absence will quickly lead to death. There is currently no known cure for type 1 diabetes, with the exception of pancreas transplantation.
Type 2 diabetes can be cured
A much more common form of diabetes is type 2, which affects 90-95% of patients with diabetes. With this type, the body produces insulin, but is not able to recognize it and use it correctly. This is considered a neglected stage of insulin resistance. Due to insulin resistance in the body, glucose levels increase, which leads to many complications. There may be all the signs of diabetes, but it is often overlooked that type 2 diabetes is completely preventable and almost 100 percent treatable. Signs that you may have diabetes include:
|Nausea and possibly vomiting||Unusual weight gain or loss|
|Blurred vision||Slow wound healing|
|Frequent infections (skin, urinary tract, and vagina)||Numbness or tingling in arms and legs|
How diabetes is misunderstood
Diabetes is NOT a blood sugar disease, but rather a violation of the signaling of insulin and leptin, developing for a long period of time, first from the stage of prediabetes, and then into full-blown diabetes, if measures are not taken.
One of the reasons traditional insulin injections or pills can not only cure diabetes, but sometimes even exacerbate it, is precisely the failure to address the underlying problem.
In this matter, the key is insulin sensitivity.
The task of the pancreas is to produce the hormone insulin and release it into the blood, thus regulating the level of glucose necessary for life.
The function of insulin is to be an energy source for cells. In other words, insulin is REQUIRED for you to live, and as a rule, the pancreas produces as much insulin as the body needs. But certain risk factors and other circumstances can cause the pancreas to stop doing its job properly.
Type 2 diabetes risk factors (Source: National Diabetes Education Program)
Over 45 years old
Overweight or obesity
Family Cases of Diabetes
History of gestational diabetes
Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease
X-HDL below 35 mg / dl
Fasting triglycerides over 250 mg / dl
Treatment with atypical antipsychotics, glucocorticoids
Obstructive sleep apnea and chronic sleep deprivation
It is likely that if you have one or more of these risk factors, or if your blood glucose levels are high, then you will be tested for diabetes and prescribed insulin in tablets or injections, and sometimes both.
Your doctor will say that the goal of these injections or pills is to lower your blood sugar. He may even explain to you that this is necessary because insulin regulation plays an integral role for your health and longevity.
He could add that elevated glucose levels are not only a symptom of diabetes, but also heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and obesity. And, of course, the doctor will be absolutely right.
But will he or she go beyond this explanation? Will you be told about the role of leptin in this process? Or the fact that if leptin resistance has developed in the body, are you directly on the path to diabetes, if not already there? Probably not.
Diabetes, Leptin, and Insulin Resistance
Leptin is a hormone produced in fat cells. One of its main functions is to regulate appetite and body weight. He tells the brain when to eat, how much to eat, and when to stop eating - which is why it is called the “hormone of satiety”. In addition, he tells the brain how to dispose of the available energy.
Not so long ago, it was found that mice without leptin become very thick. Similarly, in humans - when leptin resistance occurs that mimics a leptin deficiency, it is very easy to gain weight quickly.
Jeffrey M. Friedman and Douglas Coleman, two researchers who discovered this hormone in 1994, should be thanked for the discovery of leptin and its role in the body. Interestingly, Friedman called leptin the Greek word “leptos,” meaning “thin,” after he discovered that mice injected with synthetic leptin became more active and lost weight.
But when Friedman also found a very high level of leptin in the blood of obese people, he decided that something else should happen. This “something” turned out to be the ability of obesity to cause leptin resistance - in other words, in obese people, the signaling pathway for leptin shifts, due to which the body produces excess leptin, just like glucose if insulin resistance develops.
Friedman and Coleman also discovered that leptin is responsible for insulin signaling accuracy and insulin resistance.
In this way, the main role of insulin is NOT to lower blood sugar, but in preserving additional energy (glycogen, starch) for current and future consumption. Its ability to lower blood sugar is just a “side effect” of this energy conservation process. Ultimately, this means that diabetes is both an insulin disease and a violation of leptin signaling.
This is why the “cure” of diabetes by simply lowering blood sugar can be unsafe. Such treatment simply does not take into account the actual problem of metabolic communication impairment that occurs in every cell of the body if leptin and insulin levels are impaired and stop working together, as it should.
Taking insulin can even make some type 2 diabetes patients worsesince over time this worsens their resistance to leptin and insulin. The only known way to restore the proper signaling of leptin (and insulin) is through a diet. And I promise: it will have a deeper effect on your health than any known drug or type of medical treatment.
Fructose: a driving factor in the diabetes and obesity epidemic
The expert on leptin resistance and its role in diabetes is Dr. Richard Johnson, Head of the Department of Nephrology, University of Colorado. His book TheFatSwitch (The Fat Switch) dispels many of the legacy myths about diet and weight loss.
Dr. Johnson explains how fructose intake activates a powerful biological switch that makes us gain weight. In terms of metabolism, this is a very useful ability that allows many species, including humans, to survive during periods of food shortages.
Unfortunately, if you live in a developed country, where there is a lot of food and it is easily available, this fat switch loses its biological advantage, and, instead of helping people live longer, it becomes a disadvantage that kills them prematurely.
You may be interested to know that “death from sugar” is not an exaggeration at all. The vast majority of fructose in the diet of the average person is the main factor in the increase in the incidence of diabetes in the country. While glucose is intended for use by the body for energy (regular sugar is 50 percent glucose), fructose breaks down into a number of toxins that can damage health.
Diabetes Cures - NOT a Way Out
Most common treatments for type 2 diabetes use drugs that increase insulin levels or lower blood sugar. As I said, the problem is that diabetes is NOT a blood sugar disease. Paying attention to the symptom of diabetes (which is an increased level of sugar in the blood), rather than eliminating the underlying cause, is the monkey's work, which can sometimes be simply dangerous. Almost 100 percent of type 2 diabetics can be successfully treated without medication. You may be surprised, but you can recover if you eat, study and live properly.
Effective Diet and Lifestyle Diabetes Tips
I have summarized various effective ways to increase insulin and leptin sensitivity, and prevent or reverse diabetes, in six simple and easy steps.
Exercise: In contrast to the existing recommendations, to be careful and not to deal with during illness, maintaining physical fitness plays a very important role in controlling the situation in diabetes and other diseases. In fact, this is one of the fastest and most effective ways to reduce insulin and leptin resistance. Get started today, read about Peak Fitness and high-intensity interval training - less time in the gym, more good.
Refuse cereals and sugar and ALL processed foods, especially those containing fructose and high fructose corn syrup. Traditional diabetes treatments have been unsuccessful over the past 50 years, partly due to serious deficiencies in promoted nutritional principles.
Eliminate ALL Sugars and Cereals, even “wholesome” ones, such as whole, organic, or sprouted grains, from their diet. Avoid bread, pasta, cereals, rice, potatoes and corn (this is also grain). As long as blood sugar levels do not stabilize, fruits can also be limited.
It is especially important to refuse processed meat. As part of a groundbreaking study that compared processed and unprocessed meats for the first time, researchers at Harvard School of Public Health found that eating processed meats was associated with an increased risk of heart disease of 42 percent and a risk of type 2 diabetes by 19 percent. Interestingly, the risk of heart disease or diabetes in people who consumed raw red meat, such as beef, pork, or lamb, has not been established.
In addition to fructose, exclude trans fats, which increase the risk of diabetes and inflammation, disrupting the functioning of insulin receptors.
Eat plenty of omega-3 fats from high-quality animal sources.
Watch your insulin levels. Equally important is fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, or A1-C — it should be between 2 and 4. The higher the level, the worse the sensitivity to insulin.
Take probiotics. Your gut is a living ecosystem of many bacteria. The more beneficial bacteria there are in it, the stronger your immunity and the better your overall functionality. Optimize your gut flora by eating fermented foods like natto, miso, kefir, raw organic cheese, and cultivated vegetables. In addition, you can take high-quality supplements with probiotics.
Staying in the sun is very promising for the treatment and prevention of diabetes - studies show an important link between high levels of vitamin D and a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.
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Reasons for the appearance
Why does type 2 diabetes arise, and what is it? The disease manifests itself with insulin resistance (lack of body reaction to insulin). In sick people, insulin production continues, but it does not interact with body cells and does not accelerate the absorption of glucose from the blood.
Doctors have not determined the detailed causes of the disease, but according to current research, type 2 diabetes can occur with varying cell volume or receptor sensitivity to insulin.
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes are:
- Poor nutrition: the presence of refined carbohydrates in food (sweets, chocolate, sweets, waffles, pastries, etc.) and a very low content of fresh plant foods (vegetables, fruits, cereals).
- Overweight, especially visceral type.
- The presence of diabetes in one or two close relatives.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- High pressure.
The main factors affecting tissue resistance to insulin include the effects of growth hormones at the time of puberty, race, gender (a greater tendency to develop the disease in women), and obesity.
The basic principles of therapy
Diabetes mellitus is a real problem of our time. Before treating this unsightly affliction, let’s see how it happens. The disease is divided into two types. Disease first type occurs in children. With this type of disease, insulin simply ceases to be produced in the body. As a rule, the initial stage occurs in autumn or winter, because the body weakens at this time. If you identify this type of disease at an early stage, then insulinYou may not have to stab for a lifetime.
The ailment of the second type is ascribed to adults and even older people. The main cause of the disease of the second type is a strong weight gain.
The disease of this type is much more widespread: according to statistics out of 10 diabetics - 9 belong to the second type, and it is cured easier than the first type. A feature of the second type of disease is that the pancreas produces insulin in even larger quantities than the body needs, but against this background, cell depletion is observed.
Legs, eyes, kidneys with diabetes they begin to decrease their functions: a person can become blind, lose his legs or get such an ailment - “diabetic foot”. Also, the patient can earn complete renal failure. All these side effects are cured poorly.
In addition to impeccable adherence to all the doctor's prescriptions, the principles of treatment are distinguished:
- Compliance with the diet.
- Maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
- Regular insulin injections, if required by the cure.
With a disease of both the first and second type, much depends on nutrition. AT diabetic diet everything should be aimed at stabilizing blood sugar. One diet cures the disease for a long time, but proper nutrition helps to prevent the further development of the disease. And if you adhere to a diet paired with the most effective drug for diabetes Ferment S6 to date, then this ailment can be cured much faster.
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is also important for maintaining the well-being of a diabetic. Swimming, cardio loads, walks in the park - all kinds of sports are suitable here.
It is worth remembering that any miraculous drugs that promise to get rid of this ailment in a couple of days are just a way to get rich for some entrepreneurs, and you can’t get rid of the ailment with dubious bottles and tubes. It will also not be possible to cure the disease in a short period of time: it can take months or even years to treat. Next we will consider how to treat diabetes.
In the treatment of folk methods are often used. They must be followed with caution and used as both primary and secondary treatment.
To lower blood sugar use folk methods:
- Brew the seeds of plantain (about 15 g.), Boil and cool. Broth take 1 tsp. 3 times a day.
- Grind burdock root and squeeze juice out of it. Drink juice 3 times a day for 10 ml, after diluting it in a glass of water.
- Tincture from the peel of lemons also helps to relieve the patient’s condition. You will need 500 ml of tincture, for which you need to pour boiling water on the peel of 2 ripe lemons and insist for 1.5 hours. Drink 2 times a day for 100 ml.
- Decoction of linden. To prepare a decoction, pour 3 tsp. linden flowers with 2 glasses of boiling water. Consume 1 tsp.3 times a day: already in 1 week you will notice a noticeable decrease in blood sugar.
An infusion of honey and cinnamon will also help cure diabetes. To prepare the infusion, you need to mix honey and cinnamon in a ratio of 2: 1. To do this, add cinnamon to a glass of boiling water, and after cooling the mixture, add honey. After, place the infusion on the refrigerator for 3 hours. To treat an ailment with this method is not only effective, but also delicious.
Diabetes can be cured with simple walnuts. You can prepare either a decoction of their leaves, or from partitions. Take that one that the other decoctions should be careful: no more than 1-2 tsp. per day. To drink broths to treat the disease you need exclusively in the cold.
He will not be able to cure diabetes forever, but a compote of mountain ash and pear will definitely help. To prepare it in equal proportions, you need to boil the fruits and insist. You need to drink compote for 0.5 cups 2-3 times a day. After 4-5 days, the patient will feel sugar lowering effect.
Also, lemon and celery root will help treat the disease. You will need approximately 1 liter. potions, for which you need to make mashed potatoes of 6 lemons and 500 gr. celery. Put it all in a pan and boil for about 2 hours. Take 1 time per day for 30 minutes. 1 tsp before breakfast Treat the disease in this way for a long time, but this method is quite effective.
Medicines are a traditional and effective way to treat diabetes in both mild and moderate form. Depending on the severity of the disease and the patient’s body, he is prescribed pills to reduce blood sugar and to make it easier for him to recover from the disease.
Can the disease be cured with pills? Practice says that this is entirely possible. All tablets whose action is aimed at lowering sugar levels are divided into groups:
- Derivatives of sulfonylureas. Drugs of this class stimulate the production of insulin, while at the same time reducing the resistance of tissue cells to it.
- Examples of such agents are glimepiride, chlorpropamide and glibenclamide.
- Biguanides. These funds act on the body in such a way that the sensitivity of cells to insulin grows several times. The most famous drug of this class is Metformin.
- Thiazolidinone. Traditionally lowers blood sugar. The most common drug of this class is Troglitazone.
- Alpha glucosidase inhibitors. They act in such a way that the need for insulin during meals decreases. Examples of drugs include Miglitol and Acarbose.
- Dipeptidyl peptidiasis 4 inhibitors increase insulin production. An example is the drug Vildaglipti.
- Incretins. Increase the function of beta cells.
To recover from diabetes you need drugs that belong to different groups. Of course, you need to act in agreement with your doctor, and do not be surprised if the therapist prescribes several drugs in a small dose, and not one, but in a large one.
An effective diabetes treatment - FERMENT S6
To date, the action of modern antidiabetic drugs is aimed at eliminating the symptoms of diabetes, and not the causes of its occurrence. In contrast to such drugs, the action of FERMENT S6 is aimed at eliminating the cause of type II diabetes mellitus. A drug Enzyme C6 improves the pancreas and the restoration of beta-cell functions, which normalizes the production of own insulin.
Ferment S6 - a unique herbal preparation - the latest development of Ukrainian scientists. Production of the drug is carried out using nanotechnology. The main purpose of the drug is to normalize blood sugar in type II diabetes.
It has natural composition, does not contain synthetic additives and has no side effects. Clinically proventhat the drug is highly effective for patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical trial report can be viewed here.
The drug has a complex strengthening effect, restores metabolic processes in the body. Improves the work of the endocrine, cardiovascular and digestive systems. To view the instructions for use and the composition of the drug, click here.
Read more about the drug on the official website: http://ferment-s6.com
Diabetes Is a disease of the 21st century. Real reviews often say that people quickly recovered from this ailment. If the second type of diabetes can be cured, the first type of diabetes is quite difficult to treat. Both drug and folk methods are aimed at maintaining the current condition of the patient. To completely cure the patient and normalize his blood sugar level - resort to modern sugar-lowering drugs, in this case a positive result will not make you wait long.
Medical expert articles
A disease associated with a disorder of metabolic processes within the body and manifested by an increase in blood glucose, is called non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or type 2 diabetes. This pathology develops in response to a disorder in the interaction of tissue cells with insulin.
The difference between this disease and ordinary diabetes is that in our case, insulin therapy is not the main treatment method.
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Causes of Type 2 Diabetes
The specific causes of type 2 diabetes have not yet been established. World scientists conducting research on this topic explain the appearance of the disease by a violation of the sensitivity and number of cell receptors for insulin: receptors continue to respond to insulin, but a decrease in their number reduces the quality of this reaction. Violations of the production of insulin do not occur, but the ability of the cells to interact with the hormone of the pancreas and ensure the full absorption of glucose is lost.
Several factors for the development of type 2 diabetes have been identified:
- the risk of getting type 2 diabetes is higher during puberty in adolescents due to changes in hormone levels,
- according to statistics, women are more likely to develop non-insulin-dependent diabetes than men,
- more often the disease is found in representatives of the African American race,
- obese people are most prone to diabetes.
Sometimes the disease can be observed in close relatives, however, clear evidence of the inheritance of this pathology is currently not received.
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Along with other factors contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes, a huge role in the etiology of the disease is played by bad habits: lack of exercise, overeating, smoking, etc. Frequent drinking is also considered one of the probable causes of the pathology. Alcohol can provoke damage to pancreatic tissue, inhibit insulin secretion and increase sensitivity to it, disrupts metabolic processes, and leads to impaired liver and kidney function.
It has been experimentally proved that in people suffering from a chronic form of alcoholism, the pancreas is significantly reduced in size, and the beta-cells producing the hormone insulin are atrophied.
The ability of ethanol to lower blood glucose is a great danger to patients who have type 2 diabetes. According to statistics, 20% of cases of hypoglycemic coma occurs as a result of drinking alcohol.
Interestingly, the incidence of the disease may depend on the dose of alcohol consumed. So, when drinking a small amount of alcohol (6-48 g per day), the risk of getting diabetes decreases, and when drinking more than 69 g of alcoholic drinks per day, on the contrary, it increases.
To summarize, experts determined the prophylactic rate of alcohol consumption:
- vodka 40 ° - 50 g / day,
- dry and semi-dry wine - 150 ml / day,
- beer - 300 ml / day.
Dessert wines, champagne, liquors, cocktails and other sugar-containing drinks are prohibited.
Patients receiving insulin should lower its dosage after taking alcohol.
In the decompensated stage, the use of any alcoholic beverages is contraindicated.
It is not recommended to take alcohol on an empty stomach.
Beer is better to choose light varieties with a low alcohol degree.
After drinking alcohol, you should not go to bed without having a snack. From a sharp decrease in the amount of sugar, hypoglycemic coma can occur even during sleep.
Alcohol and type 2 diabetes can be combined in a sense, but think about whether this is necessary?
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Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
The primary manifestations indicating the development of type 2 diabetes are:
- constant desire to drink,
- urination too frequent,
- Wolfish appetite
- pronounced fluctuations in body weight in one direction or another,
- feeling of lethargy and fatigue.
Secondary signs include:
- weak immunity, frequent bacterial diseases,
- transient sensory disturbances in the limbs, pruritus,
- visual impairment
- the formation of external ulcers and erosion, which are difficult to cure.
Type 2 diabetes can occur with different severity options:
- mild degree - it is possible to improve the patient's condition by changing the principles of nutrition, or by using a maximum of one capsule of a sugar-lowering agent per day,
- medium degree - improvement occurs when using two or three capsules of a sugar-lowering drug per day,
- severe form - in addition to sugar-lowering drugs, you have to resort to the introduction of insulin.
Depending on the body's ability to compensate for carbohydrate metabolism disorders, there are three stages:
- Compensatory stage (reversible).
- Subcompensatory stage (partially reversible).
- Stage of decompensation (irreversible disorders of carbohydrate metabolism).
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Complications and consequences
The vascular system is most prone to complications of type 2 diabetes. In addition to vascular pathology, a number of other symptoms can develop: hair loss, dry skin, deterioration of the condition of nails, anemia and thrombocytopenia.
Among the serious complications of diabetes, the following should be highlighted:
- progressive atherosclerosis, provoking a violation of coronary blood supply, as well as limbs and brain tissue,
- impaired renal function,
- damage to the retina
- degenerative processes in nerve fibers and tissues,
- erosive and ulcerative damage to the lower extremities,
- infectious diseases (bacterial and fungal infections that are difficult to treat),
- hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic coma.
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Due to the fact that therapeutic measures in diabetes mellitus are usually aimed at preventing a state of decompensation and maintaining a state of compensation, we will familiarize ourselves with these important concepts to assess the consequences.
If the patient’s blood sugar level is slightly higher than normal, but there is no tendency to complications, then this condition is considered compensated, that is, the body can still cope with a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.
If the sugar level is much higher than the permissible values, and the tendency to the development of complications is clearly observed, then this condition is said to be decompensated: the body can no longer cope without medical support.
There is also a third, intermediate version of the course: the state of subcompensation. For a more precise separation of these concepts, we use the following scheme.
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Compensation for type 2 diabetes
- sugar on an empty stomach - up to 6.7 mmol / l,
- sugar for 2 hours after a meal - up to 8.9 mmol / l,
- cholesterol - up to 5.2 mmol / l,
- the amount of sugar in the urine is 0%,
- body weight - within normal limits (if calculated according to the formula "growth minus 100"),
- blood pressure indicators - not higher than 140/90 mm RT. Art.
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What happens with diabetes?
After eating, blood sugar rises, and the pancreas cannot produce insulin, which takes place against the background of high glucose levels.
As a result, the sensitivity of the cell membrane responsible for the recognition of the hormone decreases. At the same time, even if the hormone enters the cell, the natural effect does not occur. This condition is called insulin resistance when the cell is resistant to insulin.
Subcompensation of type 2 diabetes
- sugar level on an empty stomach - up to 7.8 mmol / l,
- sugar level for 2 hours after a meal - up to 10.0 mmol / l,
- indicators of cholesterol - up to 6.5 mmol / l,
- the amount of sugar in the urine is less than 0.5%,
- body weight - increased by 10-20%,
- blood pressure indicators - not more than 160/95 mm RT. Art.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
In most cases, type 2 diabetes mellitus does not have pronounced symptoms and the diagnosis can be established only with a planned laboratory study on an empty stomach.
Typically, the development of type 2 diabetes begins in people after 40 years of age, in those who are obese, high blood pressure and other manifestations of metabolic syndromes in the body.
Specific symptoms are as follows:
- thirst and dry mouth
- polyuria - excessive urination,
- itchy skin
- general and muscle weakness,
- poor wound healing
A patient may not suspect about his illness for a long time. He feels slight dry mouth, thirst, itching, sometimes the disease can manifest itself as pustular inflammation on the skin and mucous membranes, thrush, gum disease, tooth loss, and decreased vision. This is explained by the fact that sugar that does not enter the cells goes into the walls of blood vessels or through the pores of the skin. And on sugar bacteria and fungi multiply perfectly.
Decompensated Type 2 Diabetes
- sugar level on an empty stomach - more than 7.8 mmol / l,
- sugar level after a meal - more than 10.0 mmol / l,
- indicators of cholesterol - more than 6.5 mmol / l,
- the amount of sugar in the urine is more than 0.5%,
- body weight - more than 20% of the norm,
- blood pressure indicators - from 160/95 and above.
In order to prevent the transition from a compensated to a decompensated state, it is important to correctly use control methods and schemes. We are talking about regular tests, both at home and in the laboratory.
The ideal option is to check the sugar level several times a day: in the morning on an empty stomach, after breakfast, lunch and dinner, and also shortly before bedtime. The minimum number of checks is in the morning before breakfast and immediately before going to bed.
The presence of sugar and acetone in a urine test is recommended to be monitored at least once every 4 weeks. With a decompensated state - more often.
It is possible to prevent the consequences of type 2 diabetes if the doctor's instructions are strictly followed.
With diabetes, you can live a full life if you adhere to special rules on nutrition and lifestyle, as well as taking medications prescribed by your doctor, just following the treatment regimen.
Carefully monitor your condition, regularly check your blood serum sugar level and blood pressure, and monitor your weight.
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Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes
Clinical signs of pathology can already lead to the idea that a person has type 2 diabetes. However, this is not enough to confirm the diagnosis; laboratory diagnostic procedures must also be performed.
The main task of this type of diagnosis is to detect violations of β-cell functionality: this is an increase in sugar levels before and after meals, the presence of acetone in the urine, etc. Sometimes laboratory tests may be positive even in the absence of clinical signs of the disease: in such cases, they speak of early detection of diabetes.
Serum sugar levels can be determined using auto-analyzers, test strips, or blood glucose meters. By the way, according to the criteria of the World Health Organization, if the blood sugar indicators, twice, on different days, are more than 7.8 mmol / liter, the diagnosis of diabetes can be considered confirmed. For American experts, the norms are slightly different: here they establish a diagnosis with indicators of more than 7 mmol / liter.
A 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test procedure is used when there is doubt about the accuracy of the diagnosis. How is this procedure carried out:
- for three days before the study, the patient receives about 200 g of carbohydrate food per day, and you can drink liquid (without sugar) without restrictions,
- testing is carried out on an empty stomach, and at least ten hours have passed since the last meal,
- blood can be taken from a vein or from a finger,
- the patient is asked to take a glucose solution (75 g per glass of water),
- blood sampling is carried out 5 times: first - before the use of glucose, as well as half an hour, an hour, an hour and a half and 2 hours after using the solution.
Sometimes such a study is reduced by conducting a blood sampling on an empty stomach and 2 hours after the use of glucose, that is, only two times.
A urine test for sugar is less commonly used to diagnose diabetes, since the amount of sugar in the urine does not always correspond to the amount of glucose in the blood serum. К тому же, сахар в моче может появиться и по другим причинам.
Некоторую роль может играть исследование мочи на наличие кетоновых тел.
What should a sick person do without fail, in addition to controlling blood sugar? Track blood pressure and periodically take a blood cholesterol test. All indicators in total can indicate the presence or absence of the disease, as well as the quality of compensation for the pathological condition.
Tests for type 2 diabetes can be carried out along with additional diagnostics that provide an opportunity to identify the development of complications. For this purpose, the patient is recommended to remove the ECG, excretory urography, fundus examination.
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Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes
In the initial stage of the development of the disease, it is sometimes enough to follow the rules of nutrition and engage in special physical exercises, without the use of medications. It is important to bring body weight back to normal, this will help restore carbohydrate metabolism and stabilize sugar levels.
Treatment of subsequent stages of the pathology requires the appointment of drugs.
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are most often prescribed antidiabetic drugs for internal use. Reception of such medications is carried out at least 1 time per day. Depending on the severity of the condition, the doctor can use not one remedy, but a combination of drugs.
The most common antidiabetic drugs:
- tolbutamide (pramidex) - is able to act on the pancreas, activating the secretion of insulin. Most suitable for elderly patients with compensatory and subcompensatory state of type 2 diabetes. Possible side effects include an allergic reaction and transient jaundice,
- glipizide - used with caution for the treatment of elderly, weakened and emaciated patients with insufficient adrenal and pituitary function,
- mannil - enhances the sensitivity of receptors that perceive insulin. Increases the production of own pancreatic insulin. The drug should be started with one tablet, if necessary, gently increasing the dosage,
- metformin - does not affect the level of insulin in the body, but is able to change the pharmacodynamics by reducing the ratio of bound insulin to free insulin. More often prescribed for patients with overweight and obesity. Not used in the treatment of patients with impaired renal function,
- acarbose - inhibits the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine and, in this regard, reduces the increase in blood sugar concentration after ingestion of carbohydrate foods. A medication should not be prescribed for chronic bowel disease, as well as during pregnancy,
- magnesium preparations - stimulate the production of insulin by the pancreas, regulate the level of sugar in the body.
Combinations of drugs are also allowed, for example:
- the use of metmorphine with glipizide,
- the use of metamorphine with insulin,
- a combination of metamorphine with thiazolidinedione or nateglinide.
Unfortunately, in the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the above medications gradually lose their effectiveness. In such situations, you have to switch to the use of insulin funds.
Insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be prescribed temporarily (for some painful conditions) or constantly, when previous therapy with tablet drugs is ineffective.
Of course, insulin therapy should be started only when a doctor prescribes a medication. He will choose the necessary dosage and plan the treatment regimen.
Insulin can be prescribed in order to facilitate the compensation of blood sugar levels as much as possible in order to prevent the development of complications of the disease. In which cases the doctor can transfer drug therapy to insulin therapy:
- with unmotivated rapid loss of body weight,
- with the development of complicated manifestations of the disease,
- with insufficient compensation for pathology with the usual intake of sugar-lowering medications.
The insulin preparation is determined by the attending physician. This can be quick, intermediate or prolonged insulin, which is administered by subcutaneous injection in accordance with the treatment regimen proposed by the specialist.
The goal of exercises for type 2 diabetes is to influence the stabilization of blood sugar, activate the action of insulin, improve the functionality of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and stimulate performance. In addition, exercise is an excellent prevention of vascular pathologies.
Exercises can be prescribed for all forms of diabetes. With the development of coronary heart disease or heart attack with diabetes, gymnastic exercises change, given these diseases.
Contraindications to physical activity may include:
- high blood sugar (more than 16.5 mmol / liter),
- urine acetone
- precomatous state.
Physical exercises in patients who are on bed rest, but not in the stage of decompensation, are carried out in a supine position. The remaining patients conduct classes while standing or sitting.
Classes begin with standard exercises for the muscles of the upper and lower extremities and trunk without weight. Then connect classes using resistance and weight, using an expander, dumbbells (up to 2 kg) or fitness ball.
A good effect is observed from breathing exercises. Dosed walking, cycling, rowing, pool activities, and skiing are also welcome.
It is very important that the patient, who is engaged in physical education on his own, pay attention to his condition. With the development of feelings of hunger, sudden weakness, trembling in the limbs, you should finish the exercise and be sure to eat. After normalization, the next day is allowed to resume classes, however, slightly reducing the load.
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Despite taking blood sugar medications, the nutritional approach for diabetes is crucial. Sometimes mild forms of the disease can only be controlled by diet, without even resorting to the use of medications. Among the well-known treatment tables, the diet for type 2 diabetes is defined as diet No. 9. The prescriptions of this diet are aimed at restoring impaired metabolic processes in the body.
Food for type 2 diabetes should be balanced and taking into account the calorie intake of food. The optimal daily calorie intake depends on body weight:
- normal weight - from 1600 to 2500 kcal,
- excess weight - from 1300 to 1500 kcal,
- obesity of the II-III degree - from 1000 to 1200 kcal,
- IV degree obesity - from 600 to 900 kcal.
But you can’t always limit yourself in calories. For example, with kidney diseases, severe arrhythmias, mental disorders, gout, severe liver diseases, food should be nutritious.
It is recommended to abandon fast carbohydrates, limit the intake of fat and salt.
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The prevention of type 2 diabetes is based on the principles of healthy eating. Eating the “right” food serves as a prophylaxis not only for diabetes, but also for all kinds of other diseases. After all, the nutrition of many modern people is now difficult to imagine without the use of fast food, convenience foods, foods with a lot of preserving, coloring and other chemicals and quick sugars. Preventive measures should just be aimed at reducing, and preferably eliminating from our diet all kinds of junk food.
In addition to nutrition, attention should be paid to the degree of physical activity. If fitness or gymnastics is not for you, try to choose other activities for yourself: walking and cycling, swimming, tennis, morning jogging, dancing, etc. It is useful to go to work on foot, and not go by transport. It is useful to climb the stairs yourself, without using the elevator. In a word, conquer your laziness and move, be active and cheerful.
By the way, an active life position and a stable emotional state are also good methods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. It has long been known that chronic stress, anxiety, and depressive states can lead to metabolic disorders, obesity, and, ultimately, the development of diabetes. Our emotions and our condition are always closely related. Take care of the nervous system, strengthen stress resistance in yourself, do not react to small occasions to make you lose your temper: all this will help you to be healthy and happy.
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Unfortunately, type 2 diabetes is still considered an incurable chronic disease. According to statistics, every month this pathology overtakes more than 500 thousand people around the world. Each month, nearly 100 thousand patients undergo amputation of the extremities in order to prolong their life and stop vascular complications. We’ll be silent about how many people lose their eyesight or other complications due to diabetes. Unfortunately, a disease like diabetes causes as many deaths as HIV or hepatitis.
That is why it is so important to adhere to the basic methods of prevention, regularly monitor blood sugar, do not overeat and do not overload the pancreas, do not get carried away with sweets, monitor your weight and lead an active lifestyle. Preventive measures must be observed by all: both healthy people and those who already have this disease. This will prevent the development of complications and prevent diabetes from moving to the next, more difficult stage.
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Whether or not to assign disability for type 2 diabetes is decided by the medical and social expert organization, to which the patient is referred by his attending physician. That is, you can expect the doctor to decide that you need to apply for disability, but you can insist on it yourself, and the doctor has no right to refuse you.
Just the fact that you are sick with diabetes does not give you the opportunity to get a disability. This status is granted only in case of a violation of certain body functions, which are able to limit the full life activity of the patient. Consider the criteria for disability:
- Group III is provided for mild to moderate course of the disease with the presence of moderate disorders that impede the full movement or the ability to work. If diabetes is in the process of compensation and you don’t take insulin, then disability is not allowed,
- Group II is provided to patients with relatively severe disorders (retinopathy of the II-III degree, renal failure, neuropathy of the II degree, encephalopathy, etc.),
- Group I can be provided to severe patients with complete blindness, paralysis, severe mental disorders, severe cardiac insufficiency, and the presence of amputated limbs. Such patients in everyday life cannot do without outside help.
The disability group is given after examination of the patient by expert specialists (the so-called commission), who decide whether to assign the group for how long, and also discuss options for the necessary rehabilitation measures.
A standard appeal on disability to an expert committee should include:
- the result of a general study of urine and blood,
- the result of a blood serum sugar analysis before and after a meal,
- urine test for acetone and sugar,
- renal and hepatic biochemistry,
- The conclusion of the ophthalmologist, neuropathologist, therapist, surgeon.
From the general documentation you may need:
- a written statement written on behalf of the patient,
- the direction prescribed by the doctor,
- a medical card containing the entire history of your disease,
- certificate of education,
- photocopy of work book
- description of labor conditions.
If you are applying for re-provision of disability, a certificate stating that you are a disabled person is also required, as well as a rehabilitation program that has been assigned to you earlier.
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Regardless of whether you have been granted disability or not, you can apply for free insulin medications and other benefits for type 2 diabetes.
What else are you entitled to:
- receiving free syringes and sugar-lowering drugs,
- preferential order of glucose tests and devices for measuring blood sugar,
- participation in social rehabilitation (facilitating working conditions, training in another profession, retraining),
- Spa treatment.
If you are disabled, you will receive a cash benefit (pension).
They say that diabetes is not a disease, but a way of life. Therefore, patients have to adapt to pathology, pay attention to nutrition, monitor body weight, regularly monitor their condition and take tests. Well, type 2 diabetes is a really complicated disease, and only your caring attitude towards yourself can help you live a full and active life as long as possible.
What is the danger?
The main danger of type 2 diabetes is impaired lipid metabolism, which inevitably causes a violation of glucose metabolism. In 80% of cases, against the background of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and other diseases associated with clogging of the lumen of blood vessels by atherosclerotic plaques develop.
In addition, type 2 diabetes mellitus in severe forms contributes to the development of kidney diseases, decreased visual acuity, and deteriorated skin reparative ability, which significantly reduces the quality of life.
Type 2 diabetes can occur with different severity options:
- The first is to improve the patient’s condition by changing the principles of nutrition, or by using a maximum of one capsule of a sugar-lowering drug per day,
- The second - improvement occurs when using two or three capsules of a sugar-lowering drug per day,
- The third - in addition to sugar-lowering drugs, you have to resort to the introduction of insulin.
If the patient’s blood sugar level is slightly higher than normal, but there is no tendency to complications, then this condition is considered compensated, that is, the body can still cope with a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.
Type 2 diabetes
When type 2 diabetes was diagnosed, treatment begins with a diet and moderate exercise. In the initial stages of diabetes, even slight weight loss helps normalize the body’s carbohydrate metabolism and reduce glucose synthesis in the liver. For the treatment of later stages, various medications are used.
Since most patients with type 2 diabetes are obese, proper nutrition should be aimed at reducing body weight and preventing late complications, primarily atherosclerosis.
A hypocaloric diet is necessary for all patients with excess body weight (BMI 25-29 kg / m2) or obesity (BMI> 30 kg / m2).
Sugar-lowering drugs are used to stimulate cells to produce additional insulin, as well as to achieve its necessary plasma concentration. The selection of drugs is carried out strictly by a doctor.
The most common antidiabetic drugs:
- Metformin is the first-choice antidiabetic drug in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and fasting hyperglycemia. This tool promotes the movement and absorption of sugar in muscle tissue and does not release sugar from the liver.
- Miglitol, Glucobay. These drugs inhibit the absorption of polysaccharides and oligo. As a result, the increase in blood glucose levels slows down.
- 2nd generation sulfonylurea (CM) preparations (chlorpropamide, tolbutamide, glimepiride, glibenclamide, etc.) stimulate the secretion of insulin in the pancreas and reduce the resistance of peripheral tissues (liver, muscle tissue, adipose tissue) to the hormone.
- Thiazolidinone derivatives (rosiglitazone, troglitazone) increase the activity of insulin receptors and thereby reduce glucose levels, normalizing the lipid profile.
- Novonorm, Starlix. Affect the pancreas in order to stimulate the production of insulin.
Drug treatment begins with monotherapy (taking 1 drug), and then it becomes combined, that is, including the simultaneous administration of 2 or more sugar-lowering drugs. If the above medicines lose their effectiveness, then you have to switch to the use of insulin products.
Type 2 diabetes diet
Treatment for type 2 diabetes begins with a diet that is based on the following principles:
- proportional nutrition 6 times a day. You should take food constantly at the usual time,
- Do not exceed calories above 1800 kcal,
- overweight requires normalization,
- restriction of saturated fats,
- reduced salt intake,
- reduction in alcohol
- food with a lot of vitamins and minerals.
Products to be excluded or possibly limited:
- containing a large amount of easily digestible carbohydrates: sweets, rolls, etc.
- острые, соленые, жареные, копченые и пряные блюда.
- сливочное масло, маргарин, майонез, кулинарные и мясные жиры.
- жирная сметана, сливки, сыры, брынза, сладкие творожные сырки.
- манная, рисовая крупы, макаронные изделия.
- жирные и крепкие бульоны.
- sausages, sausages, sausages, salted or smoked fish, fatty varieties of poultry, fish, meat.
The dose of fiber for patients with diabetes leaves 35-40 g per day, and it is desirable that 51% of the dietary fiber consisted of vegetables, 40% of cereals and 9% of berries, fruits, mushrooms.
Sample diabetic menu for the day:
- Breakfast - oatmeal porridge, egg. Bread. Coffee.
- Snack - natural yogurt with berries.
- Lunch - vegetable soup, chicken breast with salad (from beets, onions and olive oil) and stewed cabbage. Bread. Compote.
- Snack - low-fat cottage cheese. Tea.
- Dinner - hake baked in sour cream, vegetable salad (cucumbers, tomatoes, herbs or any other seasonal vegetable) with vegetable oil. Bread. Cocoa.
- The second dinner (a few hours before bedtime) - natural yogurt, baked apple.
These recommendations are general, since each patient should have his own approach.
Follow simple rules
The basic rules that a diabetes patient should adopt:
- stick to a healthy diet
- exercise regularly
- take medication
- check blood for sugar
In addition, getting rid of extra pounds normalizes the health status of people with type 2 diabetes:
- blood sugar reaches normal
- blood pressure normalizes
- cholesterol improves
- reduced load on the legs
- a person feels lightness in the body.
You should regularly measure your blood sugar yourself. When the sugar level is known, the approach to diabetes treatment can be adjusted if the blood sugar is not normal.